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Domain Name Analysis

What's in a (domain) name? That which we call a server by any other IP address would smell as sweet.

Today it seems that just about every business, organization and group has a web presence. We access these web sites, not through the IP addresses that the computers use, but through the use of friendly, human-memorable, monikers. Services translate these Domain Names into the IP addresses for the computer.

Today, Google.com, Microsoft.com and Amazon.com are household names. These are examples of TLDs (Top Level Domains). Each TLD is distinct, and made up of the letters AZ (case insensitive), the digits 09, the simple dash '', and the period '.' (though domain names cannot start or end with the latter two).

There are only a finite number of ways the above characters can be combined to make domain names (and even less that form memorable words or phrases). To assist in this matter (and also to give some indication of the kind of service that each site performs), suffixes are added to each TLD name to categorise them. The most popular suffix, by far, is the .com domain (originally intended to signify a commerical venture). Other common domain suffixes are .net, .gov, .org, .edu as well as a whole swage of country specific suffixes such as .co.uk and .co.jp

Whilst the balance may shift in the future with the opening up of new generic top-level domain (gTLDs), and their new suffixes, the .com domain still dominates the domain name universe.

.COM and .NET

At the time of writing this blog, according to Verisign there are 102,815,927 registered names in .com universe, and 14,967,256 in the .net name space.

Just because a name is registered does not mean that there is an active website behind it, it just means that somebody has taken the option of reserving that name for current or future use.

The dominance of the .com domain can be seen from the Venn diagram on the left which compares the overlap of the two name spaces. The diagram shows that, for each distinct domain name, whether there is a registration in the .com domain, in the .net domain, or both.

NOTE – Just because the name is registered in both domains does not mean that both registrations belong to the same company! Sometimes they are, and often companies aggressively purchase matching names in the other domains to prevent confusion and lock out others. Just as often, however, names with different suffixes belong to different organisations … sometimes legitimate, sometimes obtained with dubious misrepresentation intentions.

Thankfully, these misleading registrations are not as damaging as they once were because people are relying more and more on search engines to elucidate their required destination. Often, these days, users type in what they are looking for directly into a search box (even the browser address bar) and do not type in the full http: address of their desired location. Legitimate destinations have superior Page Ranks and, thus, appear in the search results higher up.

From the diagram, we can see the ascendancy of the .com name space. Of the 102.8 million names in .com space, only 12.54% of these same names are also registered in .net namespace. The vast majority of owners of .com names (plus the doppelgangers), don't think it worth the effort.

Contrast this with the view from other side. Of the 15 million registered names in .net space, 86.13% of these names are also available in .com namespace.

Because '.com' is now part of our common vernacular, internet users are intimately familiar with it. When coming up with a new business name, sure, it's probably possible to find a suitable name in .net space, but these days, why bother? Unless it's unique you'd not be able to find the same name free in the .com space, which is where everyone would probably look in first. Better to simply research/brainstorm further and find a name you can acquire/repurchase in the .com arena and bypass all the confusion/customer education.

Distribution of lengths

Having access to a database of domain names, I decided to run some more analysis on the .com and .net databases.

Above is the distribution of lengths of all the registered .com domains.

The modal length (the most common) is 12 characters long, and the average length is 13.539 characters long. The median length is also 12 characters (there are as many domains of length shorter than than 12 characters as there are domains of length longer than 12 characters).

Below is a similar chart for all the registered .net domains.

The average lengths of the .net domains is slightly shorter.

.COM.NET
 Average Length  13.539  12.394 
 Median Length  12  11 
 Modal Length  12  10 

There are some pretty long names out there. Selected at random, here are a couple of obscure names that are 63 characters long:

 

ALTERNATIVE-RENEWABLE-ENERGY-STOCKS-INVESTMENT-WIND-SOLAR-POWER.COM

AXIALCENTRIFUGALRADIALINDUSTRIALMULTIVANEFANSVENTILATORSBLOWERS.COM

ASOCIACIONDEGUIASINTERPRETESDELPATRONATODELAALHAMBRAYGENERALIFE.COM

CARPET-CLEANING-ORANGE-COUNTYRUGSMATTRESSSTEAMUPHOLSTERYODORPET.COM

 

I'm sure the owners of these domains have fun spelling them out over the phone to potential clients :)

Saturation

There's only a finite number of ways that permissible characters can be combined to make domain names. Sufficient to say that all possible combinations of two characters have been registered in both the .com and .net domain space. Moving to three characters, again we find the address space saturated, with >96% of all combinations taken. (Generally short domain names are better as they are easier to remember, much easier to type, and often represent acronyms of the holding organisation).

Moving to four character domain lengths, things are still very congested with 43% of all combinations registered in the .com domain space. Things are slightly slacker in the .net universe with 17% of all possible four character names taken.

By the time we move to five character lengths combinatronics becomes more of our friend, as each increase in character length increases the number of possible domain names by a factor of 38 from the previous length. At five characters though, still 3.4% of all possible .com domain names have been taken. (By the time we get to five characters, it's already possible to make some pretty ugly domain names, such as ones with repeated characters and dashes). Saturation has dropped to less than 1% for five character names in the .net domain.

By the time we've reached six characters or more, congestion and saturation aren't really the issue. It's more an issue of finding a name that is memorable, meaningful and pretty (not a random mess of character, or awkward repeated characters).

Rats live on no evil star

Of all the domain names in .com space, there are currently 26,169 which are palindromes (read the same forwards and backwards). There are just 9,403 in .net space. Here are a random selection from the .com namespace:

 

AZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ.COM

A-------------------------------------------------------------A.COM

ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ.COM

SATOR-AREPO-TENET-OPERA-ROTAS.COM

LOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOL.COM

REFLECTION--NOITCELFER.COM

WONTLOVERSREVOLTNOW.COM

SLATEMETALS.COM

 

Numbers and concatenation

Just over 9% of .com domain names contain at least one numeric character. (In .net space it's over 10%).

Since just about every possible single dictionary word and name has already been taken, many domain names are constructed by concatenating words together. Because spaces are not valid for use in domain names, registrants have a choice of simply welding the words together, such as my domain name DataGenetics.com (here usefully using the fact that domain names are CasE InSEnSiTIve, so that contrast can be made using upper case to represent the start of new words). Alternatively, people may elect to use a dash – to break up the words, such as in Rat-Bikes.com

In my personal opinion, any name using a dash is sub-optimal. Users often might not remember if you have a dash or not (could they end up at your competitor if they forget it?). Also, some users are confused by how to use a keyboard to enter a dash (is it an underscore?). It's hard to explain over the phone; do you say "Hyphen", or "Dash" or "Line" or "Minus" … when spelling your URL? Finally, with more people using mobile devices, typing in the character can sometimes require double shifts.

Having said that, over 12 million .com domains have been registered with dashes (representing 11.8% of the total). Many of these, I suspect, are defensively purchased and in researching this posting, many of the URLs I entered with dashes simply redirect the user to a more appropriate domain. In .net space the percentage is higher at 13.1%

Frequency

Not all characters are equally used in domain names. A total of 1,392,049,701 characters are used to represent the 102,815,927 .com names. Below is the relative distribution:

LetterCountFreq
#1E141,646,533
#2A123,868,625
#3I100,401,072
#4O96,790,706
#5S96,189,067
#6R94,784,191
#7N93,320,130
#8T88,697,233
#9L69,479,211
#10C57,324,556
#11D43,903,797
#12M41,929,347
#13U41,562,591
#14H38,309,479
#15P35,773,302
#16G35,272,868
#17B28,121,111
#18Y25,037,505
#19F21,407,914
#20K19,964,847
#21W17,464,287
#22V16,644,742
#23-16,236,169
#24X7,320,389
#25J7,264,260
#26Z6,583,320
#2713,957,814
#2823,557,306
#29Q2,975,019
#3002,913,777
#3142,065,220
#3231,936,546
#33.1,935,919
#3481,794,959
#3551,564,812
#3661,393,887
#3791,382,868
#3871,274,322

It's interesting to note that the distribution differs from the the traditional pattern used in the English lanuage: E,T,A,I,O,N,S,H,R,D,L … Some of this can be explained by the fact that domain names are not just for the consumption of English speaking people. Even though other regions have their own domains, since .com has become the lingua franca, many businesses simply default to .com (For those interested, there is an interesting article on Wikipedia about the differing relative frequencies of letters in other languages).

The least popular letter is the letter Q, and both the numeric digits 1 and 2 occur with higher frequency than this letter. The least popular character in .com domain names is the number 7.

Couplets, triplets, quatrains, (and whatever they call five!)

Certain pairs of charcters appear more frequently together than others. Searching through the the .com namespace, it's possible to determine that the character combination 'IN' occurs more frequently than any other pair of letters (with a frequency of 23,193,376 times). Here are the top 120 doublets:

??Count
#1IN23,193,376
#2ER22,045,322
#3AN18,633,554
#4ES16,983,404
#5ON16,271,855
#6RE16,070,874
#7AR15,082,764
#8AL13,773,410
#9ST13,516,029
#10EN13,434,330
#11TE13,232,970
#12OR13,137,866
#13TI11,630,714
#14LE11,455,196
#15RA11,447,567
#16NE10,731,677
#17NG10,589,719
#18AT10,325,754
#19NT10,201,868
#20RI9,864,274
??Count
#21LI9,653,122
#22CO9,325,669
#23LA9,300,814
#24MA9,149,085
#25TO9,143,487
#26EA8,916,932
#27EL8,844,154
#28DE8,781,881
#29RO8,764,327
#30NS8,737,029
#31IC8,699,288
#32TA8,437,680
#33CA8,421,233
#34ME8,282,189
#35CH8,181,017
#36AS8,047,599
#37HO7,954,085
#38ND7,924,789
#39HE7,833,639
#40IT7,746,934
??Count
#41SE7,715,012
#42ET7,542,073
#43IS7,387,741
#44TH7,376,080
#45IO6,808,156
#46LL6,803,100
#47SI6,783,264
#48OU6,761,302
#49UR6,534,693
#50LO6,499,349
#51TR6,448,385
#52NA6,401,442
#53RT6,391,591
#54EC6,387,507
#55CE6,288,226
#56DI6,238,405
#57VE6,235,411
#58IL6,159,701
#59AC6,109,501
#60OL5,999,110
??Count
#61RS5,962,453
#62AM5,867,200
#63IA5,846,628
#64SA5,801,203
#65HA5,732,145
#66ED5,711,386
#67OM5,701,672
#68NI5,370,265
#69PA5,283,311
#70SH5,249,674
#71GE5,190,053
#72SO5,108,273
#73IE5,050,900
#74US5,030,948
#75AD4,938,913
#76TS4,910,822
#77SS4,906,823
#78VI4,906,818
#79AI4,875,583
#80OT4,869,671
??Count
#81NC4,825,712
#82MO4,760,025
#83HI4,749,105
#84OS4,711,684
#85DA4,603,390
#86PE4,532,226
#87BA4,513,833
#88EE4,456,735
#89PR4,437,297
#90OO4,425,562
#91MI4,418,683
#92EM4,391,197
#93UN4,286,124
#94BE4,271,960
#95IR4,099,976
#96KE3,996,087
#97PO3,945,584
#98AP3,808,451
#99UT3,798,122
#100GA3,796,346
??Count
#101AG3,780,466
#102SC3,645,046
#103ID3,630,847
#104DO3,592,374
#105IG3,582,602
#106NO3,550,662
#107CT3,529,155
#108WE3,505,427
#109OP3,489,397
#110GR3,436,742
#111BO3,432,061
#112FI3,393,118
#113SU3,377,709
#114CK3,325,733
#115FO3,316,860
#116CI3,289,758
#117SP3,262,011
#118OD3,147,594
#119TU3,075,995
#120EB3,002,441

Moving to triplets, we see that the highest frequency combination of letters is 'ING' with a frequency of 7,402,227 occurences. It's interesting to note that 'THE' and 'AND', whilst very high up on the list, are out counted by 'ING' (common for English -ing form of verbs).

Since I know some of you will be curious, the substring 'SEX' occurs ordinally ranked at #830 with 339,802 occurences in the .com domain.

???Count
#1ING7,402,227
#2ION4,822,392
#3ENT4,451,444
#4TER3,967,305
#5AND3,942,141
#6THE3,550,009
#7TIO3,537,762
#8ERS3,457,584
#9INE3,294,442
#10EST3,250,273
#11LIN2,903,029
#12ATI2,759,932
#13ONS2,654,525
#14ATE2,430,697
#15TIN2,397,200
#16TOR2,393,355
#17ART2,353,882
#18RES2,343,289
#19TRA2,332,510
#20STA2,284,291
???Count
#21PRO2,123,707
#22REA2,105,693
#23RAN2,092,965
#24CON2,082,868
#25ALL2,070,656
#26ORT2,059,681
#27ESS2,025,271
#28NTE2,012,337
#29LAN2,004,800
#30FOR1,991,104
#31STE1,941,777
#32CAR1,938,491
#33MAR1,935,419
#34LES1,925,969
#35STO1,923,055
#36VER1,886,713
#37ANC1,883,790
#38ALE1,818,891
#39IST1,802,642
#40INT1,801,195
???Count
#41OME1,794,527
#42ANT1,775,946
#43PER1,757,252
#44AGE1,747,623
#45ILL1,738,483
#46EAL1,730,384
#47MEN1,686,776
#48NCE1,679,483
#49ERI1,672,661
#50ICA1,672,360
#51ELL1,650,992
#52ARE1,648,406
#53REE1,630,078
#54LLE1,611,347
#55TAL1,610,718
#56OUR1,589,818
#57ONE1,586,445
#58ICE1,578,147
#59MAN1,562,247
#60STR1,558,690
???Count
#61COM1,557,329
#62NES1,556,766
#63SIN1,534,106
#64ORE1,511,463
#65SHO1,508,233
#66CHE1,506,047
#67IVE1,498,635
#68SER1,485,235
#69AIN1,470,391
#70CHA1,466,781
#71STI1,450,094
#72ECT1,439,995
#73IDE1,437,605
#74RIN1,436,529
#75AST1,431,439
#76POR1,430,462
#77CHI1,421,418
#78HER1,421,325
#79DER1,412,386
#80ITE1,395,460
???Count
#81ARD1,393,607
#82PAR1,391,007
#83DES1,381,508
#84SON1,381,487
#85INS1,366,380
#86NER1,361,337
#87EDI1,360,163
#88ERT1,355,165
#89INA1,331,050
#90NTA1,325,359
#91ANG1,323,553
#92HOT1,322,784
#93IAN1,321,398
#94RIC1,317,343
#95TON1,313,181
#96IND1,301,584
#97REN1,280,235
#98ESI1,278,969
#99HOM1,278,689
#100ANA1,273,481
???Count
#101EAR1,268,724
#102WOR1,261,552
#103HEA1,253,535
#104ECO1,250,956
#105AME1,238,717
#106GRA1,233,766
#107IES1,216,401
#108TIC1,211,928
#109CTI1,208,389
#110ARI1,202,371
#111URE1,201,484
#112MER1,197,687
#113ERA1,193,752
#114ELE1,189,551
#115HIN1,187,544
#116ASS1,186,078
#117ERE1,184,471
#118NLI1,184,337
#119ALI1,183,155
#120TUR1,182,331

Here is the table of the quatrians. Now it's possible to start making out substrings of what must be very common word fragments. I'm a little surprised that 'FREE', did not feature slightly higher than #69, but still it's impressive that there are over half a million occurences of this substring in the .com domain. (Advanced geek note here for fans of regular expressions - The counts in these tables represent the frequency of matches of these strings, not the number of domain names that contain these strings. For instance, the number of domains which contain the characters 'FREE' is 525,448 yet the table below shows the frequency is 527,809. Why the difference? Simple, some names contain the match more than once!)

????Count
#1TION3,488,333
#2ATIO1,757,364
#3TING1,574,233
#4IONS1,335,966
#5LINE1,281,210
#6NTER1,271,171
#7MENT1,248,400
#8HOME1,142,975
#9PORT1,078,931
#10ANCE1,039,416
#11NLIN1,006,019
#12ONLI1,001,340
#13SERV969,629
#14LAND930,140
#15INGS912,074
#16SIGN893,141
#17XN--853,718
#18INTE825,806
#19ERVI822,265
#20CTIO807,484
????Count
#21IGHT799,786
#22DESI798,598
#23ESIG774,347
#24VICE751,564
#25STOR750,355
#26STER725,532
#27DING724,758
#28MEDI720,883
#29RVIC720,437
#30NS1.717,066
#31ESTA716,667
#32REAL711,143
#33EALT710,484
#34CONS709,192
#35SHOP708,987
#36NS2.699,106
#37CENT698,522
#38ENTE685,673
#39INES677,334
#40COMP660,084
????Count
#41NING650,625
#42GROU650,314
#43MARK647,324
#44TURE642,651
#45PHOT633,798
#46NESS632,291
#47HOTO630,338
#48TECH626,769
#49THER626,745
#50WORK622,839
#51OUNT595,546
#52RANC595,149
#53LING594,830
#54ALES592,989
#55ROUP589,783
#56STAT587,880
#57ENTA582,465
#58SION581,508
#59TERS579,542
#60PART573,153
????Count
#61RING559,112
#62SALE557,777
#63STIN557,588
#64ENTS551,485
#65HOUS548,517
#66KING542,883
#67COUN529,230
#68ONAL527,809
#69FREE527,595
#70ARKE526,117
#71REAT525,958
#72IONA521,854
#73AUTO519,532
#74ICES509,800
#75CTOR502,528
#76ALTH502,227
#77YOUR498,557
#78CIAL498,392
#79OMES498,037
#80TORE491,740
????Count
#81HING487,146
#82OGRA485,742
#83TATE483,941
#84TIVE481,271
#85OUSE481,241
#86URAN480,572
#87OTEL478,484
#88CHIN476,787
#89UTIO475,655
#90SPOR475,653
#91ITAL473,510
#92BOOK472,095
#93CARE472,038
#94HEAL471,643
#95ATER470,263
#96BEST470,175
#97RKET469,833
#98GRAP469,391
#99SAND467,903
#100STUD467,322
????Count
#101RAPH465,722
#102OLUT465,431
#103TERN463,946
#104ALLE463,517
#105DENT463,392
#106EDIA461,549
#107EMEN460,022
#108RICA457,796
#109RENT456,295
#110RESS455,265
#111LIFE453,744
#112NDER451,107
#113ICAL449,954
#114GREE449,776
#115LUTI449,660
#116ILLE448,233
#117REEN447,048
#118VERS447,032
#119PRES445,529
#120VENT442,102

And finally, a table of the top 120 for the top five character patterns. Here word fragments are obvious. Looking through the list, it's a fun exercise to think about obvious domains that we could guess containing these strings.

?????Count
#1ATION1,735,530
#2TIONS1,134,141
#3NLINE984,560
#4ONLIN971,756
#5CTION805,503
#6ESIGN767,702
#7SERVI759,486
#8DESIG757,231
#9ERVIC718,419
#10RVICE694,050
#11PHOTO624,232
#12INTER619,105
#13GROUP586,612
#14ENTER535,085
#15EALTH478,542
#16MARKE477,951
#17UTION474,667
#18ARKET465,762
#19COUNT464,850
#20STATE462,895
?????Count
#21HOMES461,746
#22GRAPH453,391
#23SPORT452,938
#24LUTIO445,856
#25OLUTI442,088
#26HOUSE439,230
#27HOTEL430,347
#28SOLUT421,275
#29WORLD419,720
#30EMENT417,623
#31UCTIO413,506
#32STORE406,636
#33HEALT404,053
#34ENTAL402,259
#35RANCE400,607
#36MEDIA396,040
#37VICES391,582
#38CONSU382,581
#39IONAL381,293
#40ESTAT375,826
?????Count
#41STUDI371,288
#42PRODU370,826
#43MUSIC367,149
#44GREEN364,664
#45RODUC360,858
#46OGRAP357,465
#47TUDIO357,402
#48ONSUL356,447
#49TIONA352,751
#50NSULT351,168
#51CATIO348,964
#52TOGRA348,431
#53CENTE340,501
#54USINE339,681
#55INESS339,027
#56OTOGR338,962
#57ODUCT333,345
#58SINES331,515
#59MOBIL330,525
#60TRAVE327,196
?????Count
#61NATIO326,712
#62HOTOG326,706
#63RAVEL323,398
#64BUSIN321,811
#65ETING321,577
#66NTERN318,557
#67COMPA311,167
#68INSUR308,468
#69URANC305,892
#70PORTS305,602
#71SURAN303,164
#72STING300,157
#73RAPHY288,645
#74ALEST287,773
#75ELECT286,249
#76LESTA283,264
#77NSURA283,217
#78LIGHT283,044
#79AMERI282,633
#80MENTS281,103
?????Count
#81ERICA280,697
#82TWORK278,375
#83KETIN277,880
#84RKETI277,557
#85REALE274,945
#86MERIC274,523
#87ROPER273,980
#88PROPE273,710
#89PRESS272,991
#90EALES270,742
#91CREAT270,015
#92SYSTE269,157
#93SCHOO268,952
#94DIREC267,861
#95YSTEM266,582
#96IRECT266,558
#97OPERT266,462
#98CHOOL265,840
#99SOCIA265,413
#100VILLE259,832
?????Count
#101VIDEO259,764
#102TMENT251,356
#103ECTIO248,383
#104CHRIS245,314
#105FAMIL244,913
#106ETWOR244,643
#107GUIDE244,638
#108OMPAN243,981
#109TRANS243,471
#110NETWO241,831
#111SIGNS239,523
#112REATI235,494
#113CLEAN235,330
#114RENTA234,122
#115CENTR233,177
#116MEDIC233,069
#117EARCH231,572
#118WATER229,956
#119LECTR229,101
#120SSION227,410

OK, enough tables, back to charts

We now know what the most popular characters in a domains are, but what is the most popular starting letter for a domain name? Let's run a quick query to find out:

The most popular numeric digit to start domains is the number '1', but domains starting with numbers are dwarfed by domains starting with letters. Despite the occurence frequency of letters following the order E,A,I the most popular starting letter for a domain is the the letter 'S' followed, interestingly, with the letter 'C', then 'M'. The least popular letter to start a domain is the letter 'Q'.

Ending character

Same exercise, but this time with the ending character. Note - This graph is on a differnt scale. Again, 'S' is the most popular ending character, but this time with a frequency over double. (I'm guessing a lot of domain names are written as plurals).

After 'S', the next most ending letter is the letter 'E', followed by 'T'.

Composite chart

Below is a composite graph showing the frequency of start and end characaters on the same scale:

'Y' is not a popular starting letter, but it is a popular finishing letter. Conversly, 'B', 'F', 'J' and 'V' occur frequently as starting letters but not highly as finishing letters. This is probably no great surprise to students of the English language.

Cross correlations

But what about the distribution of cross-correlations? What is the relative frequency of each ending letter compared to the starting letter? The heatmap below shows this data. The brighter the color, the stronger the count. The vertical axis on the grid shows the starting letter, and the horizontal shows the ending character.

The brightest square on the grid is 'S%S', which has a count of 1,869,669; the most popular combination of start and end characters.

For those not familiar with SQL server, the '%' represnts the wild-card character and will match zero or any characters. (Geek Note - I had to use a logarithmic scale to make sensible use of the color space).

Video

If a picture speaks a thousand words, then does a video speak a thousand pictures? In this case, no, it speaks 120 pictures! The link below is to an animation helping to show the relative distribution of the frequencies of start and end characters.

This animation presents the same data as shown in the grid above, but on each time slice, lowers the threshold about which items get shaded.

At the start of the animation, you can see the bright cell for 'S%S', along with bright cells for 'C%S', 'M%S' and 'A%S'. The vertical column for the '%S', and to a lesser extend the '%E' column, are visible at the start. As time passes the other vertical columns become more visible, highlighting the fact that the ending character in a domain is more quantised than the starting one. Numbers don't start to make a meaningful appearance until about half way into the movie.

'4%Q' and '6%Q' are at the bottom of the frequency table.

International Domains

There are now also internationalised domain names supporting native unicode characters for languages with non latin alphabets. These domains are outside the scope of this article. You can find more details about these here IDN

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Update

Thank you to the numerous people who took to time to email me and correct me about a definition. In this article, I refer to the entire root of a domain name e.g. Amazon.com as the TLD. I made a mistake, it is just the .com component of this name that is the TLD. I hope this error didnít mask the enjoyment of the article for you. I appreciate all the feedback I receive.

 

 

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